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I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero. Turner Fenton S. Gay Rights Movement in America. School Turner Fenton S. It does so by amending Executive Order , issued by [former] President Nixon, which banned discrimination by the federal government based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap or age.

They regarded homosexuals as an oppressed minority. Vol 14 Pg Vol 60 pg 6. The sources used to investigate this topic provided relevant information. This book is written by Barry D. The very idea of being out, it was ludicrous. People talk about being in and out now, there was no out, there was just in. If you came to a place like New York, you at least had the opportunity of connecting with people, and finding people who didn't care that you were gay.

And they were gay. And then there were all these priests ranting in church about certain places not to go, so you kind of knew where you could go by what you were told not to do. There was all these drags queens and these crazy people and everybody was carrying on. I made friends that first day. The music was great, cafes were good, you know, the coffee houses were good.

A lot of them had been thrown out of their families. And that crowd between Howard Johnson's and Mama's Chik-n-Rib was like the basic crowd of the gay community at that time in the Village. You gotta remember, the Stonewall bar was just down the street from there. It was right in the center of where we all were.

That was our world, that block. I mean, I came out in Central Park and other places. That wasn't ours, it was borrowed. This was ours, here's where the Stonewall was, here's our Mecca. The idea was to be there first. It was an age of experimentation. In the sexual area, in psychology, psychiatry. Almost anything you could name. Things were just changing. All the rules were off in the '60s. It was tremendous freedom.

You had no place to try to find an identity. And when you got a word, the word was homosexuality and you looked it up. It said the most dreadful things, it said nothing about being a person. It was as if they were identifying a thing. He brought in gay-positive materials and placed that in a setting that people could come to and feel comfortable in.

But as visibility increased, the reactions of people increased. The shop had been threatened, we would get hang-up calls, calls where people would curse at us on the phone, we'd had vandalism, windows broken, streams of profanity.

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We could lose our memory from the beating, we could be in wheelchairs like some were. Hunted, hunted, sometimes we were hunted. We could easily be hunted, that was a game. The mayor of New York City, the police commissioner, were under pressure to clean up the streets of any kind of quote unquote "weirdness.

I guess they're deviates. They were to us. And the Village has a lot of people with children and they were offended. One was the statute that made it a crime in the state to masquerade. Where did you buy it? They'd go into the bathroom or any place that was private, that they could either feel them, or check them visually. You see these cops, like six or eight cops in drag. And then they send them out in the street and of course they did make arrests, because you know, there's all these guys who cruise around looking for drag queens.

And so there was this drag queen standing on the corner, so they go up and make a sexual offer and they'd get busted. The cops would hide behind the walls of the urinals. Naturally, you get careless, you fall for it, and the next thing you know, you have silver bracelets on both arms. The lights came on, it's like stop dancing. Because that's what they were looking for, any excuse to try to bust the place.

Here are my ID cards, you knew they were phonies. And it would take maybe a half hour to clear the place out.

2 nicholas c edsall toward stonewall homosexuality

This is every year in New York City. Well, it was a nightmare for the lesbian or gay man who was arrested and caught up in this juggernaut, but it was also a nightmare for the lesbians or gay men who lived in the closet. This produced an enormous amount of anger within the lesbian and gay community in New York City and in other parts of America. Gay people were not powerful enough politically to prevent the clampdown and so you had a series of escalating skirmishes in Eventually something was bound to blow. Gay bars were always on side streets out of the way in neighborhoods that nobody would go into.

The windows were always cloaked. There were gay bars in Midtown, there were gay bars uptown, there were certain kinds of gay bars on the Upper East Side, you know really, really, really buttoned-up straight gay bars. There was at least one gay bar that was run just as a hustler bar for straight gay married men.

The Mafia owned the jukeboxes, they owned the cigarette machines and most of the liquor was off a truck hijacking. It was a down at a heels kind of place, it was a lot of street kids and things like that. It was not a place that, in my life, me and my friends paid much attention to. We knew it was a gay bar, we walked past it.

It meant nothing to us. Never, never, never. Mafia house beer? I mean does anyone know what that is? But it was a refuge, it was a temporary refuge from the street. Everyone from the street kids who were white and black kids from the South.

All kinds of designers, boxers, big museum people. A medievalist. First you gotta get past the door. There's a little door that slides open with this power-hungry nut behind that, you see this much of your eyes, and he sees that much of your face, and then he decides whether you're going to get in. And then as you turned into the other room with the jukebox, those were the drag queens around the jukebox.

Cause we could feel a sense of love for each other that we couldn't show out on the street, because you couldn't show any affection out on the street. I had never seen anything like that. I never saw so many gay people dancing in my life. And I said to myself, "Oh my God, this will not last. They call them hotels, motels, lovers' lanes, drive-in movie theaters, etc. Gay people were told we didn't have any of that.

Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World | UVA Press

And we had no right to such. Except for the few mob-owned bars that allowed some socializing, it was basically for verboten. And so we had to create these spaces, mostly in the trucks. And these were meat trucks that in daytime were used by the meat industry for moving dead produce, and they really reeked, but at nighttime, that's where people went to have sex, you know, and there would be hundreds and hundreds of men having sex together in these trucks. But we went down to the trucks and there, people would have sex. In the trucks or around the trucks.

And it just seemed like, fantastic because the background was this industrial, becoming an industrial ruin, it was a masculine setting, it was a whole world. I mean I'm talking like sardines. And there, we weren't allowed to be alone, the police would raid us still. Then the cops come up and make use of what used to be called the bubble-gum machine, back then a cop car only had one light on the top that spun around.

They would bang on the trucks. We'd say, "Here comes Lillian. One time, a bunch of us ran into somebody's car and locked the door and they smashed the windows in. That was scary, very scary. Absolutely, and many people who were not lucky, felt the cops. They would not always just arrest, they would many times use clubs and beat. They were afraid that the FBI was following them. As president of the Mattachine Society in New York, I tried to negotiate with the police and the mayor. Finally, Mayor Lindsay listened to us and he announced that there would be no more police entrapment in New York City.

A few of us would get dressed up in skirts and blouses and the guys would all have to wear suits and ties. And, I did not like parading around while all of these vacationers were standing there eating ice cream and looking at us like we were critters in a zoo. We didn't want to come on, you know, wearing fuzzy sweaters and lipstick, you know, and being freaks.

You know, we wanted to be part of the mainstream society. This, to a homosexual, is no choice at all. Homosexuals do not want that, you might find some fringe character someplace who says that that's what he wants. I was a homosexual. I first engaged in such acts when I was 14 years old. I was never seduced by an older person or anything like that. But I gave it up about, oh I forget, some years ago, over four years ago.

It's not my cup of tea. And I had become very radicalized in that time. There was the Hippie movement, there was the Summer of Love, Martin Luther King, and all of these affected me terribly.

All of the rules that I had grown up with, and that I had hated in my guts, other people were fighting against, and saying "No, it doesn't have to be this way. It was a way to vent my anger at being repressed. Mayor John Lindsay, like most mayors, wanted to get re-elected.

And the police escalated their crackdown on bars because of the reelection campaign. The Chicago riots, the Human Be-in, the dope smoking, the hippies. All of this stuff was just erupting like a -- as far as they were considered, like a gigantic boil on the butt of America. Not even us. They raided the Checkerboard, which was a very popular gay bar, a week before the Stonewall. So gay people were being strangled, shot, thrown in the river, blackmailed, fired from jobs.

It was a horror story. I was celebrating my birthday at the Stonewall. Beginning of our night out started early. When we got dressed for that night, we had cocktails and we put the makeup on. I was wearing my mother's black and white cocktail dress that was empire-waisted.

I didn't think I could have been any prettier than that night.

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You throw into that, that the Stonewall was raided the previous Tuesday night. So it was a perfect storm for the police. They didn't know what they were walking into.

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This was a highly unusual raid, going in there in the middle of the night with a full crowd, the Mafia hasn't been alerted, the Sixth Precinct hasn't been alerted. They pushed everybody like to the back room and slowly asking for IDs. Meanwhile, there was crowds forming outside the Stonewall, wanting to know what was going on. And some people came out, being very dramatic, throwing their arms up in a V, you know, the victory sign. So I run down there.

And as I'm looking around to see what's going on, police cars, different things happening, it's getting bigger by the minute. And the people coming out weren't going along with it so easily. And the harder she fought, the more the cops were beating her up and the madder the crowd got. And Howard said, "Boy there's like a riot gonna happen here," and I said, "yeah. And so Howard said, "We've got police press passes upstairs. At least if you had press, maybe your head wouldn't get busted. Getting then in the car, rocking them back and forth. Calling 'em names, telling 'em how good-looking they were, grabbing their butts.

Doing things like that. Just making their lives miserable for once. Your choice, you can come in with us or you can stay out here with the crowd and report your stuff from out here. I said, "I can go in with you? It's the first time I'm fully inside the Stonewall. They were just holding us almost like in a hostage situation where you don't know what's going to happen next.

They were getting more ferocious. Things were being thrown against the plywood, we piled things up to try to buttress it. But we couldn't hold out very long. This was the first time I could actually sense, not only see them fearful, I could sense them fearful. The cops were barricaded inside. We were winning.

And she was quite crazy. And when she grabbed that everybody knew she couldn't do it alone so all the other queens, Congo Woman, queens like that started and they were hitting that door. I mean they were making some headway. It was a real good sound to know that, you know, you had a lot of people out there pulling for you. Somebody grabbed me by the leg and told me I wasn't going anywhere.

It was terrifying. It was as bad as any situation that I had met in during the army, had just as much to worry about. I wanted to kill those cops for the anger I had in me. And the cops got that. And they were lucky that door was closed, they were very lucky. Cause I was from the streets. Because if they weren't there fast, I was worried that there was something going on that I didn't know about and they weren't gonna come. That never happened before.

And a couple of 'em had pulled out their guns. I actually thought, as all of them did, that we were going to be killed. And if enough people broke through they would be killed and I would be killed. They'd think I'm a cop even though I had a big Jew-fro haircut and a big handlebar mustache at the time.

But I'm wearing this police thing I'm thinking well if they break through I better take it off really quickly but they're gunna come this way and we're going to be backing up and -- who knows what'll happen. Don't fire until I fire. Like, "Joe, if you fire your gun without me saying your name and the words 'fire,' you will be walking a beat on Staten Island all alone on a lonely beach for the rest of your police career.

Do you understand me? That this was normal stuff. But everybody knew it wasn't normal stuff and everyone was on edge and that was the worst part of it because you knew they were on edge and you knew that the first shot that was fired meant all the shots would be fired. People standing on cars, standing on garbage cans, screaming, yelling.

The ones that came close you could see their faces in rage. And we all relaxed. We heard one, then more and more. And they wore dark police uniforms and riot helmets and they had billy clubs and they had big plastic shields, like Roman army, and they actually formed a phalanx, and just marched down Christopher Street and kind of pushed us in front of them. And a whole bunch of people who were in the paddy wagon ran out. That's what gave oxygen to the fire. Because as the police moved back, we were conscious, all of us, of the area we were controlling and now we were in control of the area because we were surrounded the bar, we were moving in, they were moving back.

And this went on for hours. You cut one head off. For the first time the next person stood up. Gay people were never supposed to be threats to police officers. They were supposed to be weak men, limp-wristed. Not able to do anything.